Ethical Guidelines for Researchers

Paradigms follows a set of ethical guidelines for publication. All authors are requested to follow these guidelines.

Authors submitting their research papers should follow the guidelines given under:

1 The manuscript submitted to paradigms should not be published or submitted for publication to any other journal.
2 The manuscript should not contain any illicit material nor contravene any existing copyright unless with due permission.
3 The author should have permission from the manuscript holder(s) to reconstruct the manuscript, in media and communicate through respective third parties, any material including photographs, diagrams, and tables not owned by the author.
4 The author should have “Proof of consent” regarding the use of names of people and organizations.
5 The author who receives a final draft of the manuscript is responsible for the material, concur to publication and the order of the other authors listed on the paper.
6 Any person who has made a pivotal contribution in the paper, should be listed as an author(s). Minor contributions may be acknowledged in the Acknowledgement section.
7 The author should proclaim any potential conflict of interest in the paper. Any support from the third party must be mentioned in the Acknowledgement section.
8 The author should not deposit the final version of the manuscript into an organizational repository until the manuscript has been published by Paradigms.
9 The author should not allow others to electronically gather and save his paper to a separate server.
10 All authors should agree to the order of authorship and names of all authors should be included as (1) ________ (2) __________, and etc.
11 All authors should have reviewed the manuscript and agreed to take the responsibility of the content.


The author who submits his manuscript to Paradigms, should practice and follow our guidelines as mentioned, his manuscript will be treated according to the outline provided. The author should also accept that, in serious cases of misconduct and unable to make an appropriate apology, he will be suspended from publishing in Paradigms for up to five years.

Correction notices will be placed on the online version of the manuscripts and will appear in the next issue of the journal. Such notices will contain one of the following:


  1. Error and Omission in Printing

This form indicates publishing error or oversight that has normally been occurred in the publication process. Such error will appear on the online version of the manuscript at the abstract level to ensure visibility for readers. Moreover, publishing error will also appear in the upcoming issue of the journal.

  1. Error and Omission in Writing

This form indicates an error by the author that has occurred prior to the manuscript having been submitted for publication. Such error will appear on the online version of the manuscript at the abstract level to ensure visibility for readers. Furthermore, author’s error will also appear in the upcoming issue of the journal.

  1. Retraction

This notice will only be used in major cases of ethical misconduct or when research is misleading. In normal circumstances, the manuscript will remain in the outline version of the journal. Retraction will appear on the online version of the manuscript at the abstract level to ensure visibility for readers. Moreover, retraction will also appear in the upcoming issue of the journal. The retraction notice will be published as a separate item in the upcoming issue and assigned a DOI number for future reference by the researchers.

Such notice clearly states the causes for the manuscript being withdrawn in a factual manner. It might be necessary to eradicate manuscript from database for legal causes. In this case, a note to this effect will be presented on the online table of contents. If this notice is required for the work of author, Paradigms reserves the right to suspend publication of any future work by the author up to 5 years. Any submission by the author during such tenure will not be considered by any Paradigms publication.

  1. Note of Clarification

A note of clarification will be used when a point needs to be clarified in the text but it does not constitute a correction.

Please note that any amendment has to be highlighted as a stated publishing error, author error or note of clarification and the text cannot be amended.

  1. Expression of Concern

In cases where the conclusion is unclear or where we are unable to make a fair decision due to conflict of interest or lack of information, Paradigms will publish an expression of concern about the manuscript. An expression of concern will appear on the online version of the manuscript at the abstract level to ensure visibility for readers. It will also appear on the online version of the manuscript.

Please note that Paradigms reserves the right not to proceed with a case if the complainant presents a false name or acts in an inappropriate manner towards Paradigms team.

  1. Guidelines in Making Decisions about Ethical Misconduct

Ethical issues include:

  • Plagiarism
  • Redundant publication (dual publication or self-plagiarism)
  • Authorship issues
  • Libel/defamation
  • Fabricated data
  • Unethical research and testing
  • Conflicts of interest

There are several levels of interpretation of ethical misconduct. We present the following considerations when adjudicating a difficult case. It is important that we are consistent in our treatment of all cases.

     i. Plagiarism

Paradigms requires that all submitted manuscripts are original and the authors agree to such terms when signing a consent form.

  • Minor referencing errors, for example, 1 to 10 missing references for small sections of text of less than 10% copying of a single text, would result in an author’s error.
  • Major copying of more than 10% of a single text without sufficient referencing would result in a retraction.
  • Copying ideas would result in an error of writing or note of clarification (subject to author’s agreement). As there is no copyright in ideas, it is unlikely that retraction notice would ever be appropriate (when previous work has been referred) unless the author is in full agreement. There would be no defense for retracting a manuscript for copying of ideas.
  • Insufficient acknowledgment of methodology, hypothesis, or a work such as the work has been referenced but the use of the work not fully highlighted, would result in a note of clarification.

       ii.  Redundant Publication

Authors should submit original content to Paradigms. It is only acceptable for the study to be repeated if it leads to new or unique conclusions or differentiated with new data. In all cases, it is necessary to refer to the previously published work.

The repeated study, which is fully acknowledged and fall below 25% of the original manuscript are acceptable. It is necessary to check that the scope of manuscript and conclusions do differ from the previous study. If the repetition has not been sufficiently highlighted, then a note of clarification may be required.

If more than 25% of the manuscript has been copied without acknowledgment of the previous study and without the inclusion of different conclusions, retraction or error of writing is required depending on the severity of the case. If the manuscript is a verbatim copy of a previously published study, a retraction notice is required. If the same manuscript has been published in another journal as a result of multiple submission, a retraction notice is required.

        iii. Authorship Issues

In multi-authored manuscripts, it is necessary that all authors that have made a significant contribution to the manuscript are listed. Those who have provided support but not contributed to the research should be acknowledged in acknowledgment section.

Authorship issues fall into three main types:

  • the exclusion of a contributor from the list of authors
  • the inclusion of persons who have not contributed to the manuscript
  • the order of the authors on the manuscript and the level of contributors that have made to the manuscript

Paradigms will endeavor to assist a resolution to an authorship dispute. Nevertheless, as the research process is undertaken before submitting a manuscript to Paradigms, it is not possible for Paradigms or the editors to comment on the level of contribution by each author.

If all authors agree to change to authorship on the manuscript, this will be presented as an author’s error. A retraction notice will only be published when requested by all the authors.

      iv. Libel/Defamation

Paradigms requires that authors should have written “proof of consent” for studies about people or organizations.

If unsubstantiated, emotive and inaccurate statements are made about people in a submitted manuscript, Paradigms reserves the right to request amendments to the text from the author or reject the manuscript.

Critiques and reviews of products and services are acceptable but comments must be constructive and must not be made maliciously.

If statements have been made in a manuscript that is published by Paradigms and considered to be defamatory, a retraction notice will be published. In some cases, the manuscript will be withdrawn from the online version of the journal. An apology will be published in upcoming issue of Paradigms.

     v. Fabricated Data

As the study is conducted before the manuscript being submitted to Paradigms, it is not possible for the editors of Paradigms to adjudicate in all cases. We will endeavor to assist a resolution and will refer the matter to authors’ institutions when appropriate.

     vi. Unethical Research and Testing

An author must follow appropriate national and international procedures with respect to data protection, rights to privacy, medical testing on humans and animals and child protection. Authors must make available all consent forms and requisite forms from the appropriate regulatory bodies to the editors and publishers at Paradigms. Paradigms encourages all authors to demonstrate how their study contributes to the advancement of society.

If a study is found to contravene national and international procedures and this is confirmed with the appropriate regulatory body, Paradigms will publish a retraction notice.

     vii. Conflict of Interest

All conflicts of interest should be declared by the author, editor and reviewer.

Conflict of interest:

  • A personal and financial interest in the outcomes of the study
  • Undisclosed financial support for the study by an interested third party
  • A personal and financial interest in the suppression of the study

A note to highlight the background of financial support for the study from third parties of any other possible conflict of interest must be added to the manuscript prior to review.

If a conflict of interest is suspected, then this should be reported to Paradigms. A concern about an editor should be raised with the journal publisher at Paradigms.

In all cases, Paradigms will:

  1. Act efficiently and professionally and reply to emails and letters within three working weeks of an initial complaint to explain the procedures that will be taken
  2. Be completely objective and fair
  3. Always read the evidence in detail before taking further steps
  4. Always approach to accused party to incorporate their position before taking any action
  5. Ensure that they provide sufficient time for all parties to respond
  6. Keep all parties informed of decisions, including copyright owners, authors and editors
  7. It is Paradigms’ responsibility to secure author’s moral rights and to ensure the correct record of the literature

It is impossible to please all the parties in any case. Following a fair and considered process, the final decision in any disputed case will rest with the Paradigms and its editorial board.

Please note that Paradigms reserves the right to end the process with a case if the complainant presents a wrong name or acts in an inappropriate or threatening manner towards Paradigms team.

     viii. Paper Type

Currently, Paradigms accepts research papers only.